Extraction of Colored Metals

 Following comminution and separation by mineral processing, metallic minerals are subjected to extraction Colored of metals, in which their metallic elements are extracted from chemical compound form and refined of impurities.
Metallic compounds are frequently rather complex mixtures (those treated commercially are for the most part sulfides, oxides, carbonates, arsenides, or silicates), and they are not often types that permit extraction Colored of the metal by simple, economical processes. Consequently, before extractive metallurgy can effect the separation of metallic elements from the other constituents of a compound, it must often convert the compound into a type that can be more readily treated. Common practice is to convert metallic sulfides to oxides, sulfates, or chlorides; oxides to sulfates or chlorides; and carbonates to oxides. The processes that accomplish all this can be categorized as either pyrometallurgy or hydrometallurgy.
Pyrometallurgy involves heating operations such as roasting, in which compounds are converted at temperatures just below their melting points, and smelting, in which all the constituents of an ore or concentrate are completely melted and separated into two liquid layers, one containing the valuable metals and the other the waste rock.
Hydrometallurgy consists of such operations as leaching, in which metallic compounds are selectively dissolved from an ore by an aqueous solvent, and electrowinning, in which metallic ions are deposited onto an electrode by an electric current passed through the solution.